Team activities in which elements of dance and acrobatics are chanted together to entertain the spectators in sports competitions and make them happy with more vigor and enthusiasm. Once a one-sided activity is specifically designed to support school sports, cheerleading is recognized as a sport in its own right and often goes beyond the school context. Cheerleading has long been considered an American activity that symbolizes school spirit, leadership, youth, and sexual appeal. South America (including Texas) is considered the heart of modern chair leadership, although the activity is well-established throughout the United States as well as abroad, and has spread to countries around the world.
History Of Cheerleading:
Although chair leadership today is primarily associated with women, the original chair leaders were men. Cheerleading was associated with the rise of gridiron football in Ivy League colleges and universities in the United States in the mid-1800s, and paralleled the rise of cheerleading and its formal football. In the late 19th century, as college sports participation increased, larger stadiums were built, and spectators were removed from the playing field. Cheerleaders, or “Yell leaders,” when they were called, guided the audience from both sides to encourage the spectators and act as a form of crowd control. By the 1920s, cheerleading had become a formal extracurricular activity for boys in high schools, colleges and communities across the country, which was related but separate from other spiritual programs such as marching bands, drum corps and drill teams. As ambassadors to their schools and communities, cheerful individuals were associated with character building qualities such as discipline, cooperation, leadership and sportsmanship.
Women and people of color were excluded from private all-male schools where earlier colleges developed sports and recreational sports, but many state-sponsored institutions began participating in sports competitions at the end of this century. As soon as it was opened, women started entering. During the 1920s and ’30s, women began to join the happy squad as a promotion of college sports, and men and women began to socialize more and more in public. During the same period, a distinct cheerleading tradition developed in black educational institutions, with a similar emphasis on character building and leadership. Overall, however, chair leadership remains a white business, and the evidence suggests that it has become even more “white” since the merger, as the total number of black schools has decreased and black Students were rarely elected as chairpersons in integrated, predominantly white schools. It wasn’t until the 1960s and ’70s, when the diversity of educational sports programs began to reflect the racial and ethnic composition of schools. The change was the result of protests by black and Latino students.
The mobilization of college-age men during World War II opened up new opportunities for women to be cheerful and eventually led to the ‘femininity’ of chair leadership in the 1960s and ’70s, when women cheerleaders The proportion increased to about 95%. The involvement of women changed the nature of good humor, with more emphasis on physical attraction and sexual appeal. As a result, there may be little publicity and degradation of chair leadership.
Cheerleading declined in popularity in the 1970s and late 80s, due in part to the second wave of feminism challenging traditional notions of gender roles, and with the passage of Title IX, which was introduced in schools. Guarantees equal access to sports for girls and women. Received US federal funds. Cheerleading has been criticized for its supportive role in men’s sports competitions and has been accused of perpetuating gender inequality. For professional sports teams, the introduction of cheerleading squads, such as the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders and Locker Girls, drew criticism, as the performances of these squads usually consisted of sexual dances.
The Cheerleading Renaissance:
The decline of the chair leadership was long overdue, and it soon became more popular and lucrative than ever before. Reasons for his recovery included the growing athletic nature of cheerleading and the adoption of sporting elements such as competitions, summer training camps and rigorous practice schedules. Most cheerleading squads no longer led the festivities or danced on the edges. They also performed jumps and stunts, built pyramids, and underwent extensive tumbling, whether in sports competitions or in cheerleading competitions. These changes made the excitement even more appealing for a generation of girls and women who had more options for athletic participation than in the past, and because of which male participation, especially at the college level, was reborn. Although the introduction of difficult acrobatics was not without flaws, studies in the first decade of the twenty-first century found that beyond gymnastics and track, cheerleading American girls and women suffer catastrophic sports injuries (brain or spinal cord). Has become a major cause of serious injury.
Although the concept of competition was not new – since inter-scholastic high school competitions were held in early 1944 – there has been a growing emphasis on competition over other aspects of cheerleading since the 1990s. The rapid rise of all-star chair leadership in the late 1990s was one of the reasons for this growth. All Star Clubs are private for-profit programs where children under the age of six receive rigorous instruction in gymnastics and chair leadership. They compete with other All-Star Chair clubs within their extensive network of competitions. As a scholarly site for learning pleasant skills, AllStar programs initially served as a training ground for high school and college chair programs but soon became popular on their own.
The first College Cheerleading Championship was televised in 1978, followed by many more in the early 1980s. Since then, cable networks have aired many joyous championships for national and international audiences, and competitive cheerleading has been the focus of Hollywood movies, reality TV shows, and news stories. None of this could have happened without the development and involvement of the modern chair-leading industry. In all parts of the United States, troops are affiliated with various chair-leading companies, or associations, which run their own product lines for competitions, summer camps, coaching clinics, safety certification seminars, and uniforms and apparel. The “founding father” of the industry, Lawrence Herrkemer, was himself a chair at Southern Methodist University in Dallas. In 1948, Herrkemer founded the National Cheerleaders Association (NCA), headquartered in Dallas, and the smaller but larger Universal Cheerleaders Association (UCA) is based in Memphis.
Cheerleading not only in terms of its auxiliary sideline function but also in the performance and appearance requirements placed on women: short skirts, hair ribbons, and make-up and the expectation of a permanent smile and enthusiasm. Competitive chair leadership sideline chair leadership is given a more racial form than Insofar as there is more emphasis on showmanship and performance. Although there are stylistic variations between cheerleading companies that monitor competitions, competition routines are usually fast, fast and dynamic. They stand out from the glitz, glamor and sparkle, especially in the All-Star context: the bows grow bigger, the make-up is too much, and the dance moves are brushed and sexy.
Since the 1990s, “alternative” forms of cheerleading have emerged alongside the mainstream variations discussed above. An extensive national network of adult LGBTTI teams (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and intersex) has been formed (Chair San Francisco’s oldest and largest) and Proud of community and gay performances, and “radical cheerleaders”, group workers of young women, use chair leadership as a vehicle to protest social injustice. Although less popular and less visible than mainstream gospel, such alternative groups use similar energy, spirit, and cheerful performances to communicate and influence the audience.